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Butterfly Gardening 

in Central Florida

by Sharon LaPlante

 

Attracting butterflies to your backyard is not only rewarding, it is also easier than you may think.  This is because the plants that are an integral part of a butterfly's life cycle are all around us in nature as well as in our landscape.  Taking advantage of this natural occurrence saves the butterfly gardener time, money, and labor.  Native wildflowers such as Spanish needle and lyre leaf sage are invaluable nectar sources for feeding adult butterflies.  Other wildflowers - mistakenly considered useless weeds by many; everlasting and toadflax, are regular volunteers in tended flowerbeds and will provide larval food without any work on the part of the gardener.  By simply making room for the plants they require, the butterfly gardener is rewarded with an abundance of these beautiful creatures to study, photograph, or just enjoy.

Butterflies require two entirely different types of plants in order to complete their life cycle.  An adult butterfly is equipped with a proboscis, or tubular tongue, that it uses for drawing nectar, whereas, immature butterflies, known as larvae or caterpillars, have chewing mouth parts and feed on plant parts.  The required food for both life stages should be planted or cultivated in order to develop a successful and abundant butterfly garden.  What this means essentially is - provide flowers for the adults and leaves for the caterpillars.  Additional requirements include water and shelter, however, these needs are usually met without additional effort once the butterfly garden is established.

Flower nectar is the preferred food choice of most adult butterflies, however some species also take advantage of tree sap, fermenting fruit, and even carrion.  When planting nectar plants, keep in mind that adult butterflies need sunlight in order to warm their wings for flight.  Therefore, place the majority of nectar plants in a sunny location to assist them as they prepare for takeoff.  Black butterflies, such as the zebra longwing, actually seem to prefer feeding, or nectaring, in shady areas much more frequently than their lighter counterparts.  This is because their dark color absorbs heat more readily thus enabling them to be active sooner in the day as well as on cooler days.  Knowing this, the butterfly gardener should locate some nectar plants in the shade as well as in sunny areas to satisfy all the nectar-seeking visitors.  Florida butterflies are active most of the year so it is also important to utilize a variety of plant species.  This keeps your garden  producing blooms throughout the seasons, ensuring a continuous supply of nectar - even in winter.   

The female butterfly searches out the proper host plant on which to lay her eggs by tasting each plant with sensors on her feet.  Once the correct host plant is located, she will typically lay her eggs on its tips where the tender new growth is found.  Each species of butterfly uses a particular plant or family of plants to nourish its young and will only lay eggs on those plants.  Growing an abundance and variety of larval food plants will attract and support the largest variety of butterflies.  Planting larval foods in several locations throughout your landscape will also ensure that a particular plant, or plants, will not be defoliated as quickly and will 'bounce back' faster with new growth.  Caterpillars feed continuously and voraciously for a few weeks until they have completed several molts, or instars, and are mature enough to pupate.  Most will move away from the host plant to nearby foliage or structures on which to complete this last stage of their larval life.  Some butterflies, however, may stay and pupate on the host plant, while others descend into the leaf litter to accomplish this feat.  Once pupated, the organism has developed a very hard outer covering, called a chrysalis, wherein metamorphosis takes place, and in approximately two weeks an adult butterfly will emerge to trigger a repeat of an amazing life cycle. 

A butterfly's water requirements are usually met in the form of raindrops, water droplets, and moist soils and mulches.  Routine watering in the butterfly garden is generally more than adequate to fulfill their moisture needs.  Watering the flower beds on hot days will usually result in several butterflies landing to drink from the moist soil or mulch.  A butterfly drinks by uncoiling its proboscis and laying it in the crevices of the mulch, or along the edge a water droplet, drawing water through the tube shaped tongue.  Butterflies can often be seen drinking, or puddling, from mud puddles and areas of concentrated livestock urine in order to obtain required salts and minerals as well as water.    

Shelter requirements are generally met once the butterfly garden is established.  Adult butterflies seek mature foliage for protection from inclement weather, predators, or merely to rest.  Butterfly houses are very attractive in the garden, but unfortunately, at least for the author, do not seem to entice butterflies into the confined space that they provide.  Butterflies prefer shrubs or trees with large leaves which give them adequate cover and an easy escape route if threatened with predation.  Some species roost communally which can make a seemingly lifeless shrub silently explode with flitting butterflies when disturbed.

Take advantage of the wonderful native plants that Florida has to offer and you automatically provide for many of our beautiful native butterflies.  My humble garden becomes absolutely crowded at times with these fascinating animals.  With minimal planning and care, your efforts will be handsomely rewarded.

 

SWALLOWTAILS
Black Swallowtail

Apiaceae

or Celery family

wild chervil (Chaerophyllum tainturieri)

wild carrot (Daucus pusillis)             

bishop's weed (Ptilimnium capillaceum)

Giant Swallowtail

Rutaceae

or Citrus family

hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata)

prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum)

Hercules's club (Zanthoxylum  clava-herculis)

Palamedes Swallowtail

Lauraceae

or Laurel family

spicebush (Lindera benzoin)

pond spice (Litsea aestivalis)

red bay (Persea borbonia)

swamp bay (Persea palustris)

Pipevine Swallowtail

Aristolochiaceae 

or Birthwort family

Virginia snakeroot (Aristolochia serpentaria)

wooly pipevine (Aristolochia tomentosa)

Polydamas Swallowtail

Aristolochiaceae 

or Birthwort family

Virginia snakeroot (Aristolochia serpentaria)

wooly pipevine (Aristolochia tomentosa)

Spicebush Swallowtail

Lauraceae

or Laurel family

spicebush (Lindera benzoin)

pond spice (Litsea aestivalis)

red bay (Persea borbonia)

swamp bay (Persea palustris)

Tiger Swallowtail

Magnoliaceae

or Magnolia family

tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera)

sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana)

Zebra Swallowtail Annonaceae or Custard apple family

slim-leaf pawpaw (Asimina angustifolia)

flag pawpaw (Asimina obovata)

pawpaw (Asimina reticulata)

WHITES
Checkered White

Brassicaeae

or Mustard family

peppergrass (Lepidium virginicum)
European Cabbage White

Brassicaeae

or Mustard family

peppergrass (Lepidium virginicum)
Great Southern White

Brassicaeae

or Mustard family

American sea rocket (Cakile edentula)

coastal sea rocket (Cakile lanceolata)

peppergrass (Lepidium virginicum)

SULPHURS (a partial listing of species in our area)

Barred Sulphur

Fabaceae

or Pea family

shy leaf (Aeschynomene americana)

sticky vetch (Aeschynomene viscidula)

pencil flower  (Stylosanthus biflora)

Cloudless Sulphur

Fabaceae

or Pea family

shy leaf (Aeschynomene americana)

sticky vetch (Aeschynomene viscidula)

pencil flower  (Stylosanthus biflora)

Dainty Sulphur

Asteraceae

or Aster family

Spanish needles (Bidens alba)

BLUES

Cassius Blue

Fabaceae

or Pea family

Elliott's milk pea (Galactia elliottii)

Eastern milk pea (Galactia regularis)       

Ceraunus Blue

Fabaceae

or Pea family

alicia (Chapmannia floridana)

Elliott's milk pea (Galactia elliottii)

Eastern milk pea (Galactia regularis)  

tropical puff (Neptunia pubescens)

Eastern Pygmy blue

Chenopodiaceae

or Glasswort family

annual glasswort (Salicornia bigelovii)

perennial glasswort (Salicornia perennis)

HAIRSTREAKS (a partial listing of species in our area)

Gray Hairstreak

Fabaceae

or Pea family

partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata)

sensitive pea (Chamaecrista nictitans)

wild sensitive plant (Senna ligustrina)

wild sensitive plant (Senna marilandica)

Great Purple Hairstreak

Viscaceae

or Mistletoe family

mistletoe (Phoradendron leucarpum)
Red-banded Hairstreak

Fagaceae

or Beech family

oaks (Quercus spp.)
White M Hairstreak

Fagaceae

or Beech family

oaks (Quercus spp.)

BRUSHFOOTED BUTTERFLIES

American Painted Lady

Asteraceae

or Aster family

everlasting (Gamochaeta pensylvanica) 

narrowleaf everlasting (Gamochaeta falcatum) 

(synonym Gnaphalium)

Common Buckeye

Scrophulariaceae

or Figwort family

false foxglove (Agalinus fasciculata)

slender false foxglove (Agalinus tenuifolia)

American bluehearts (Buchnera americana)

Canada toadflax (Linaria canadensis)

Texas toadflax (Linaria texana)

Gulf Fritillary

Passifloriaceae

or Passion vine family

passion vine (Passiflora incarnata)

maypop (Passiflora lutea)

cork-stem passion vine (Passiflora suberosa)

Pearl Crescent

Asteraceae

or Aster family

bushy aster (Aster dumosus)

climbing aster (Aster carolinianus)

Phaon Crescent

Verbenaceae

or Vervain family

carpetweed (Phyla nodiflora)

(synonym Lippia)

Question Mark

Ulmaceae

or Elm family

hackberry (Celtis laevigata)

winged elm (Ulmus alata)

Florida elm (Ulmus americana)

Red Admiral

Urticaceae

or Nettle family

false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica)

Florida pellitory (Parietaria floridana)

heartleaf nettle (Urtica chamaedryoides )

Red Spotted Purple

Salicaceae

or Willow family

coastal plain willow (Salix caroliniana)

Florida willow (Salix floridana)

Variegated Fritillary

Passifloriaceae

or Passion vine family

passion vine (Passiflora incarnata)

maypop (Passiflora lutea)

cork-stem passion vine (Passiflora suberosa)

Viceroy

Salicaceae

or Willow family

coastal plain willow (Salix caroliniana)

Florida willow (Salix floridana)

White Peacock

Scrophulariaceae

or Figwort family

lemon bacopa (Bacopa caroliniana)

herb-of-grace (Bacopa monnieri)

Zebra Longwing

Passifloriaceae

or Passion vine family

passion vine (Passiflora incarnata)

maypop (Passiflora lutea)

cork-stem passion vine (Passiflora suberosa)

HACKBERRY BUTTERFLIES

Hackberry

Ulmaceae

or Elm family

hackberry (Celtis laevigata)

winged elm (Ulmus alata)

Florida elm (Ulmus americana)

Tawny Emperor

Ulmaceae

or Elm family

hackberry (Celtis laevigata)

winged elm (Ulmus alata)

Florida elm (Ulmus americana)

MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES

Monarch

Asclepiadaceae

or Milkweed family

milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)

white vine (Sarcostemma clausum)

Queen

Asclepiadaceae

or Milkweed family

milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)

white vine (Sarcostemma clausum)

Soldier

Asclepiadaceae

or Milkweed family

milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)

white vine (Sarcostemma clausum)

SATYR BUTTERFLIES  (a partial listing of species in our area)

Carolina Satyr

Poaceae

or Grass family 

wood oats (Chasmanthium spp.)

crown grass (Paspalum spp.)

SNOUT BUTTERFLY

Snout butterfly

Ulmaceae

or Elm family

hackberry (Celtis laevigata)

winged elm (Ulmus alata)

Florida elm (Ulmus americana)

SKIPPERS (a partial listing of species in our area)

Giant yucca skipper

Agavaceae

or Agave family

Adam's needle (Yucca filamentosa)
Long tailed skipper

Fabaceae

or Pea family

beggarweed (Desmodium spp.)

WILDFLOWERS
Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Flower Blooming Size
Asclepias incarnata swamp milkweed sun avg-moist pink sp, su & fall 3 ft
Asclepias tuberosa butterfly milkweed sun avg-dry orange-red sp, su & fall  2 ft
Balduina angustifolia yellow buttons sun avg-dry yellow sp, su & fall  3 ft
Bidens alba Spanish needles sun-pt sh avg white all year 3 ft
Carphephorus corymbosum Florida paintbrush sun avg-dry lavender su & fall 3 ft
Cnidoscolus stimulosus tread-softly sun-pt sh avg-dry white all year 2 ft
Elephantopus elata elephant's foot sun-pt sh avg-dry lavender su & fall 3 ft
Gaillardia pulchella blanket flower sun avg-dry red-yellow all year 2 ft
Garberia heterophylla garberia  sun-pt sh avg-dry lavender su & fall 6 ft                
Glandularia tampensis Tampa vervain sun-pt sh avg-moist lavender sp, su & fall 2 ft
Guara angustifolia southern guara sun avg-dry pink-white all year 5 ft
Ipomopsis rubra standing cypress sun avg-dry orange-red su & fall 3 ft
Lachnanthes caroliniana redroot sun-pt sh          moist-wet off white sp, su & fall 3 ft
Liatris gracilis graceful blazing star sun-pt sh avg-dry lavender su, fall 3 ft
Lobelia cardinalis cardinal flower sun -pt sh moist-wet red su & fall 6 ft
Piloblephis rigida false pennyroyal sun avg-dry lavender wtr & sp 2 ft
Ruellia caroliniensis wild petunia sun-pt sh avg blue-purple sp, su & fall 2 ft
Salvia coccinea red salvia sun-pt sh avg red all year 3 ft
Stokesia  laevis Stoke's aster sun avg-moist blue-purple sp, su & fall 2 ft
Verbesina virginica frostweed sun-pt sh avg white su, fall 6 ft
Vernonia angustifolia ironweed sun-pt sh avg purple su, fall 4 ft
SHRUBS
Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Flower Blooming Size
Cephalanthus occidentalis     buttonbush sun-pt sh moist off white sp, su & fall 10 ft
Cordia globosa bloodberry sun-pt sh avg white sp, su & fall 5 ft
Erythrina herbacea coral bean sun-pt sh avg-dry red spring 4 ft
Hamelia patens firebush sun avg-moist orange-red all year 15 ft
Rhododendron canescens wild azalea pt shade moist pink spring 15 ft
Rhododendron viscosum swamp azalea pt shade moist white summer 15 ft   
Rubus cuneifolius sand blackberry sun avg-dry white wtr & sp 6 ft
Rubus trivialis southern dewberry sun avg-dry white wtr & sp 3 ft
Vaccinium corymbosum highbush blueberry sun-pt sh avg-moist white spring 10 ft
TREES
Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Flower Blooming Size
Aesculus pavia buckeye pt-shade avg-moist red spring 36 ft
Aralia spinosa devil's walking stick pt-shade avg off white summer 30 ft
Prunus americana  American plum pt-shade avg white spring 30 ft
Prunus angustifolia chickasaw plum pt-shade avg white spring 24 ft
Prunus umbellata flatwoods plum pt-shade avg white spring 24 ft
Vaccinium arboreum sparkleberry pt-shade avg white spring 30 ft
VINES
Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Flower Blooming Size
Bignonia capreolata cross vine sun-pt sh avg red spring variable
Campsis radicans trumpet vine sun-pt sh avg orange-red sp, su, fall variable
Ipomoea cordatotriloba morning glory sun avg lavender sp, su, fall variable
Ipomoea hederifolia scarlet morning glory sun-pt sh avg red sp, su, fall variable
Ipomoea pes-caprae railroad vine sun avg-dry lavender sp, su, fall variable
Lonicera sempervirens coral honeysuckle pt shade avg red sp - su variable

 

Recommended reading:

Ajilvsgi, Geyata.  Butterfly Gardening for the South.  Taylor Publishing: Dallas, TX.  1990

Emmel, Thomas.  Florida's Fabulous Butterflies.  World Publications: Tampa, FL.  1997

Glassberg, J., Marc Minno, & John Calhoun  Butterflies Through Binoculars: Florida.  Oxford University Press  2000

Huegel, C.  Butterfly Gardening with Florida's Native Plants.  Florida Native Plant Society: Orlando, FL.  1992

Minno, Marc & Maria.  Florida Butterfly Gardening.  University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL.  1999

Taylor, Walter Kingsley.  The Guide to Florida Wildflowers.  Taylor Publishing: Dallas, TX  1992

Wunderlin, Richard P.  Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida.  University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL.  1998  

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